|FGU - Fukuoka General Union|
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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
Over the years union members have been asked many questions when talking to their coworkers and friends about the union. Most of the questions are valid, but they're often based on incorrect assumptions or myths about labour unions. In this article we hope to answer some of the more common questions.
The majority of our members are teachers and staff at conversation schools, public and private schools, and universities. However, our union is open to any full time or part time worker regardless of nationality. You probably have friends or coworkers who are already Fukuoka General Union members; ask around.
We help by offering advice and concrete support on how you and your coworkers can form and run a union branch at your school or company. The size and determination of your branch are both important considerations in deciding what improvements your branch can achieve. When you and your coworkers are ready, experienced Japanese and foreign members of the Fukuoka General Union will assist you in negotiating collective agreements with your company. Our experience shows that when people join together, they can win significant improvements.
An employer can fire a non-union worker for complaining about their pay and conditions. On the other hand, a union member whose union raises the same issues in negotiations is protected by Article 28 of the Constitution and Article 7 of the Trade Union Law.
Union dues are inexpensive; 24,000 yen per year. Your dues also cover our affiliation fees to both our national union (National Union of General Workers) and our union federation (National Trade Union Council). Our membership in these two organizations ensures that we have contact and support not only from other foreign union members in Japan, but also Japanese workers from other unions.
Different people join the union for different reasons. Some join in the hope of improving working conditions; others to prevent a decline in their current conditions. Many join simply because they believe in unions and agree with the work that we do. Whatever your reason we suggest that you do join and also encourage your co-workers to join.
Joining is simple. Send an e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org or call us on (092) 473-1222. If you prefer we can set up a time to talk in person about the union and then you can decide if you want to join.
At some companies, we set up branches in order to deal with a specific workplace, but we do encourage all members to help other union members regardless of their workplace or the industry in which they belong. Our union is strong because we represent workers in a whole industry rather than in just one workplace. Your union membership is valid even if you work at more than one company, and remains valid upon changing jobs.
The Fukuoka General Union has a reputation for winning. We've won legally entitled paid holidays, the end of contract limits, unfair dismissals, payment of unpaid wages and overtime, and pay increases. If you're interested in making your workplace a better place for teachers, staff, and students then you should call the union and find out more about how to make this possible.
What is fair and reasonable isn't simply a matter of employers following the minimum standards set in the law. The law does not require an employer to give pay rises and the minimum wage in Japan is less than 700 yen an hour. On the other hand, without you and your coworkers, your company can't run. The least that you should expect is a fair share and a say in what happens at your workplace. The Fukuoka General Union considers all of the following to be both fair and reasonable:
It is for the employees to decide what to negotiate for. After declaring a branch you and your coworkers will discuss which issues are important to everyone in the branch. These issues will form the basis for your demands to the employer. Experienced union activists can provide assistance with any technical issues related to drafting or negotiating the demands.
The Fukuoka General Union is a democratic organization run by the members. We hold an Annual General Meeting open to all members to elect our Executive Officers. The Executive Officers hold an Executive Committee Meeting once a month and participate in the day to day running of the union. The Executive Committee meetings are also open to all members. Groups of union members working at the same company can form a branch. Each branch of the Fukuoka General Union also has officers which are elected by the branch members. Branch officers work in consultation with the Fukuoka General Union's Executive Committee. The union is run by its members.
Japanese Labour Law prohibits employers from discriminating against people in any way because of their union activity. If an employer does harass or discriminate against a union member, the union can file an 'Unfair Labour Practices' case with the Labour Commission.
However, the best safeguard against the employer harassing anyone is for everyone to stick together. Without a union, management has a free hand to treat people as it pleases. But with a union everyone has the protection of the law and their coworkers.
In the ten years since the Fukuoka General Union was formed only very few union members have been fired/not renewed for union activity and the union has won all the cases. On the other hand, we regularly receive calls from nonunion members seeking advice on what to do about dismissals and non-renewals. There is no guarantee that you will not be fired, but if you are, you are much better off with a union than you are without one.
Our experience so far is that when employees join together to form a union that they are able to maintain existing benefits and in many cases have won significant improvements. In theory the union might agree to grant concessions to aid an ailing company, but this would come only as a last resort after the company had opened its books and only with the agreement of the members.
It's natural for employees to be concerned about the financial health of companies and schools where they work. After all, if the company goes out of business, it can't pay anyone's wages or salaries. On the other hand, the assumption that if the company is doing well the employees will be the beneficiaries is not necessarily the case. A profitable company could become even more profitable by laying off employees or paying less in wages and benefits or by paying the same salaries but increasing the working hours. Even having an exact profit figure doesn't give the full picture, as companies can spend money on a lot of things besides employees; e.g. financing expansion and opening new schools, moving into new businesses, management salaries, and expensive advertising campaigns. In the last six years, we have seen English Conversation Schools that have purchased company airplanes, yachts, a Swiss Chalet, and in one case an island in the Philippines. In the final analysis, the only way to ensure economic justice for employees is by building strong unions.
The union is you and other people like you. The employer would like you to think that unions are corrupt. The truth is that the Fukuoka General Union is a decent, honest, organization dedicated to improving the lives of working people.
Most people don't initially intend to stay for a long time but for one reason or another many stay for much longer than the year or so for which they planned. Foreign workers of many nationalities and occupations now make up a significant part of Japan's work force. Improvements in one sector set an example and give hope to workers in other fields. Even if you are here for a relatively short time, your friends in other companies and your coworkers may be here long after you leave. Joining the union will help them now and in the future.
The definition of the Japanese way depends on who you talk to, and is sometimes based on fundamentally self- interested assumptions. Every year thousands of Japanese people go on strike and attend rallies or demonstrations. In Japan there are 10 million people in labour unions. Zen Rokyo, the labour federation to which the Fukuoka General Union belongs, has 3 hundred thousand members. The Fukuoka General Union is a Japanese union formed in accordance with Japanese law and jointly led by Japanese and non-Japanese members.
Teachers at Bilingual and Atty (two large English Schools that closed in 1994) were not unionized before both companies started having major financial difficulties. Once the schools had gone bankrupt the only reason that the employees were able to collect back wages was because of the intervention of the union.
Companies do not go out of business because they have a union, or because the workers are treated fairly. Companies close because of market conditions or poor management. The Fukuoka General Union has not forced any company into bankruptcy. This is a scare tactic that employers use to keep people from gaining a voice on the job. With fair wages, working conditions, and a voice on the job, teachers stay longer and become better and more experienced teachers.
Your dues pay for office expenses. Union activists are motivated by a sense that what they are doing is right, and most of them are completely unpaid. Nobody is getting rich off union dues. Your dues are spent promoting your rights and working conditions. Employers also pay dues to organizations. Employers in Japan have their own 'unions', such as the Chamber of Commerce and the Japan Employers' Association. They pay for representation; why shouldn't you?
Management talks a lot about strikes during an organizing drive. Strikes are uncommon and most problems are solved without striking. The only way there can be a strike is if the employees in your branch vote for a strike. Unions have a lot of other tactics that can put pressure on management to reach a fair agreement. For example, unions use negotiations, leafletings, rallies, and community support, rather than having to always resort to striking.
You are welcome to join the union as an individual, but the greater the number of union members in your workplace, the more we can accomplish. Where there is already a Fukuoka General Union branch at your company or school, we will put you in contact with co-workers already in the union. If there is no union branch where you work, the Fukuoka General Union has many experienced organizers who can help you and your co-workers with the mechanics of forming a branch.
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